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FIGURE 36-10 Carpentier's functional classification of the types of leaflet and chordal motion associated with mitral regurgitation. In type I, the leaflet motion is normal. Type II mitral regurgitation is due to leaflet prolapse or excessive motion. Type III (restricted leaflet motion) is subdivided into restriction during diastole ("a") or systole ("b"). Type IIIb is typically seen in patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation. The course of the leaflets during the cardiac cycle is represented by the dotted lines. (Modified with permission from Carpentier A: Cardiac valve surgery: the "French correction." J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 86: 323, 1983.)